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MAINTENANCE AND DRIVING TIPS

At the scene of the accident

At the scene of the accident

 
  • Keep calm and refrain from any discussion with the other driver involved.
  • Call the police immediately so that they can take down all necessary details.
  • If someone has been injured, call an ambulance.

Collect relevant details about the accident

Collect relevant details about the accident

 
  • Ask the witness(s) for their contact information
  • Ask the other driver(s) for their contact information
  • If possible, make a rough sketch of the accident scene and note the accident's details. A photograph would also be helpful.

After the accident

After the accident

 
  • Notify the Toyota Insurance Section (24-hour hotline: 2968 3222) or your insurance company about the accident as soon as possible.
  • Complete the accident form provided by the Toyota Insurance Section or your insurance company and ensure that it is signed by you and, if different, also by the person driving your car at the time of the accident.
  • Even if there has been no personal injury, you are recommended to report the accident to the police within 24 hours.
  • Do not reply to any letter issued by the police or a third party. Let the Toyota Insurance Section or your insurance company handle it for you

Repairing your car

Repairing your car

 
  • Please have your car towed to one of our Toyota Service Centres or drive the car to the nearest Toyota Service Centre. (In the case that a towing service is required, please call Crown Motors' 24-hour free towing service at 2811 0228.)
  • We will prepare a detailed estimate of the costs, which must be submitted to and approved by the Toyota Insurance Section or your insurance company prior to the commencement of repair work.

Car theft

Car theft

 
  • If your car and/or car parts and/or belongings in the car are stolen, report it to the police.
  • Notify the Toyota Insurance Section* or your insurance company after reporting the theft to the police.

Battery

Q1) What kind of maintenance does a battery need?

The amount of battery electrolyte decreases through the repeated discharging and recharging of electricity during the vehicle's use. When the battery electrolyte decreases past the LOWER level and the battery is continuously used while still in this state, it will cause a decline in battery performance and shorten the battery life.

Q2) Why does the shortage of battery electrolyte decrease battery performance and shorten battery life?

When the amount of battery electrolyte decreases, the plates are exposed above the surface of the battery electrolyte. The exposed parts can't effect any chemical reaction, thus decreasing battery performance. When the battery is continuously used in this condition without refilling the electrolyte, the sulfation phenomenon occurs, drastically shortening battery life.

 

Sulfation phenomenon
This phenomenon damages the plates so they are no longer chemically reactive. When the sulfation phenomenon has occurred, the battery won't recover to its original state even if the battery electrolyte is refilled.

Q3) When the battery electrolyte is low, what should be used to refill the battery?

The battery electrolyte is diluted sulphuric acid (a mixture of sulphuric acid and distilled water). Only the water in the battery electrolyte is lost through electrolysis and the natural evaporation of water. Therefore, distilled water should be used to replenish the battery electrolyte. If water containing impurities, such as tap water or well water, is continuously used to refill the battery, impurities will accumulate, shortening battery life.

Q4) What shortens battery life?

  • Heavy discharging and recharging of the battery
    • Vehicle is run only at night. (Electrical load is large.)
    • Vehicle is stopped for long periods of time with the engine idling. (Amount of electricity generated is small.)
    • Engine is started many times a day. (Electrical load is large.)
  • High battery temperature, for example, when the battery is used in a way that its temperature rises
    • Driving on roads where there are traffic jams for long periods of time
  • Shortage of battery electrolyte

Car care

Q1) How to wash your vehicle

1 Use a feather duster or soft rag to wipe off dirt from the top down, then apply water and detergent to clean the vehicle's body.
2 Use a sponge or chamois to remove dirt.
3 Do not machine-wash dark-coloured vehicles.
4 Wash the vehicle from the top to the bottom.
5 Wipe moisture off in one direction.

Q2) How to wax your vehicle

1 Schedule wax jobs based on the wax's nature and the car's surface dirt.
2 Use a sponge or chamois to remove dirt.
3 Apply wax in a fixed direction.
4 Do not apply wax when the vehicle's body is hot or in scorching sunlight.
5 Do not apply wax immediately after the vehicle has been driven.
6 The timing for wiping off the wax must suit the characteristics of the wax.

Engine oil

Q1) Why is a period of time designated for oil changes, in addition to the designation of oil changes according to travel distance?

Engine oil gradually oxidises and deteriorates, even when the vehicle has not travelled far. This is particularly true for short trips where the engine is stopped before the oil has warmed up. The moisture mixed into the engine oil can't evaporate, and the various additives in the oil are consumed faster, shortening the oil's life. Therefore, oil changes are also specified by periods of time.

Q2) What is the mechanism of engine oil consumption?

Engine oil decreases even when there is no defect such as an oil leakage, because part of the engine oil lubricating the pistons, intake valves, exhaust valves and turbocharger enters the combustion chambers and is consumed by combustion or evaporation.

Q3)What will happen when new engine oil is used to replenish (top-up) the existing engine oil?

Metal particles from engine wear, as well as carbon and dirt such as sludge, accumulate in the engine oil (deteriorated oil) after the time specified for the oil change has passed. Also, the additives are consumed, so the engine oil can't provide satisfactory performance, and deteriorated oil has a bad effect on the engine.

Belts

Q1) Why do cracks occur in belts?

A belt repeatedly receives bending force and elongation force each time it rotates. Over time, belt fatigue occurs, the belt is hardened by heat, and its flexibility declines. 

Q2) At what stage of cracking should a belt be replaced?

Fine cracks cause almost no decrease in belt strength. When cracks have developed in a belt, it is better to advise the customer to replacement the belt early, in order to use the vehicle safely.

Q3) How long does a belt last?

A belt will last for about 60,000 - 100,000 km of driving distance in ordinary use, but belt life varies greatly according to the degree of belt tension and the vehicle usage environment condition. (The influence of heat is particularly great.) If oil has adhered to a belt, the rubber will be eroded by the oil, drastically shortening belt life.

Tires

Q1) What is a tire tread wear indicator?

Tire tread wear indicators are patterned ridges 1.6mm (0.0630 in.) to 1.8mm (0.0709 in.) higher than the rest of the tread surface, which are moulded into the tread at four to six points along the circumference of the tire.

Q2) Why is it dangerous when the tire tread is worn out?

Tire tread grooves have the following roles:
  • Increasing the tire's braking force and driving force;
  • Improving controllability and stability;
  • Increasing the tire's heat radiation effect; and
  • Increasing the draining effect.

When a vehicle with tires with worn-out tread runs at high speed on a road surface with standing water, the draining power of the tires becomes worse and hydroplaning can easily occur. Hydroplaning is the phenomenon in which water gets between the tires and the road surface, the tires float up off the road's surface, and the steering and braking then no longer work. This phenomenon occurs due to the relationships between the conditions of tire wear, tire air pressure, water depth and vehicle speed.

Reference Hydroplaning phenomenon Experiment with different depths of tire grooves (grounding section of tire photographed through glass plate) (Speed: 80km/h, water depth: 5mm)

Q3) What kinds of abnormal tire wear occur and what causes them?

The following are general forms of irregular tire wear.

Q4) Why is tire rotation necessary?

When a vehicle is loaded, driven, and turning, the forces applied on the front tires and rear tires are different, so the wear of the front tires and rear tires each advances in a unique way. Therefore, for tire durability, it is important to rotate the tires at the appropriate times. The front load is particularly great in FF vehicle, and the burdens of driving force, turning force and braking force applied on the front tires are large.

 

Tire rotation timing 

From every 5,000 km (FF or 4WD) to every 10,000 km (FR), subject to frequency of use and road conditions

Q5 )Why does air pressure need to be adjusted?

Tire air pressure gradually becomes lower even when the tire has no particular defect. Insufficient air pressure in the tire increases the deformation and bending of the tire tread section, makes the tire tread wear faster, and causes abnormal wear of tire tread. This decreases the vehicle's turning performance, braking performance and driving performance.

Long Life Coolant

Q1) Why does the amount of coolant decrease?

Coolant gradually decreases due to its natural evaporation from the reservoir tank. Generally, the coolant in the reservoir tank will not all evaporate naturally in a short period of time. Therefore, when the coolant that has been poured to the FULL line suddenly decreases, consider the possibility that some trouble has occurred.

Amount of coolant decrease by natural evaporation: about 0.3l/year 

Q2)Why does the LLC need to be changed?

The main component of LLC, ethylene glycol, is gradually oxidised by the heat of the engine and by contact with the air inside the reservoir tank as the service period passes, and becomes more strongly corrosive. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically replace the used LLC with new LLC at fixed time intervals. 

Wiper Blade

Q1) What is the cause of the deterioration of wiper blades?

A wiper blade deteriorates due to the following causes. When this occurs, it can no longer ensure good visibility.

  • The edge surface becomes worn and rounded by the working of the wiper.
  • It is important to avoid the intrusion of dirt and fine sand particles between the wiper blade and the window glass surface. The wiper blade is damaged by the dirt and fine sand particles, leaving streaks of unwiped water on the window glass.
  • When a wiper blade has been used for a long period of time, the blade rubber hardens, its flexibility declines, and defective wiping occurs due to the poor contact of the wiper blade with the window glass, and due to the shuddering vibration of the wiper blade.

 

Q2) How long does a wiper blade last?

It is difficult to specify the timing for replacing wiper blades. Wiper blade replacement can be done relatively cheaply. It is recommended to replace the wiper blades once a year at the time of the periodic inspection. To make wiper blades last longer, only operate the wipers after using washer fluid to wash off the sand and dust adhering to the window glass surface.

Q3) Why does the shuddering vibration of wipers occur?

Wiper shuddering means that the wiper is vibrating due to changes of friction between the wiper blade and the glass surface. This is generally likely to occur just before the window glass has dried during a drizzle or after rainfall has stopped. 

Brake System

Q1) How long are the lives of brake pads and linings?

The expected life of brake pads and linings is usually 20,000 - 50,000 km or more, but this varies greatly depending on how the brakes are used, so there are no exact guidelines. 


Reminders:

  • When the brakes are used frequently, they wear out quickly.
  • When the speed of the vehicle just before applying the brakes is higher, and the cargo and the number of passengers are greater, the brake pads and linings wear out faster.
  • When the brakes are applied suddenly, the brake pads and linings wear out faster. Front brake pads wear faster than rear brake linings or pads.
  • A/T vehicles' brake pads or linings wear faster than M/T vehicles' brake pads or linings. 

 

Q2) Use caution when refilling brake fluid:

Only use the brake fluid that has been designated for each vehicle when refilling. If you refill using a brake fluid other that the designated type, there is a possibility that braking performance could be decreased, and the brakes can no longer ensure good performance.

Q3) Why is maintenance (replacement) needed?

Due to the characteristics of its components, brake fluid absorbs moisture easily. It is in contact with air in the reservoir tank section because air access occurs through the air hole of the reservoir tank cap in each brake operation, and thus it absorbs moisture from the air. Therefore, the amount of water contained in the brake fluid will increase as time passes, and its boiling point becomes lower, so the phenomenon of vapour lock can easily occur.
 
Brake fluid tips:

  • Brake fluid must have high boiling point.
  • Brake fluid ust not corrode rubber or metals.
  • It must have appropriate viscosity, and the change of viscosity by temperature must be small.
  • Good lubricity is a must. 

 

4-Wheel Drive

Q1) What are the advantages of 4-Wheel Drive?

The driving force applied to each tire of a 4WD vehicle is about half that per tire for a 2WD vehicle. Each tire has surplus gripping power, and the 4WD vehicle shows excellent run-through performance and climbing performance on slippery road surfaces.

Q2) What matters require special attention when using a 4WD vehicle?

Do not overestimate a 4WD vehicle's abilities. A 4WD vehicle is not an all-purpose vehicle. When you drive a 4WD vehicle on rough roads or/and snowy roads, carefully operate the accelerator, steering and brakes as you would an ordinary vehicle, without trusting the 4WD too much. Concentrate on driving safely. A 4WD vehicle is not exclusively designed for off-road running, rally running and in-water running; avoid these types of driving situations whenever possible. 

When your vehicle is being towed:

When your vehicle is out of order and you ask someone to tow it, confirm the towing method shown in the manual before proceeding. In particular, if the vehicle is towed with its front wheels or rear wheels placed on a dolly where the wheels placed on the truck cannot rotate, this may cause a seizure of the drive unit, or the vehicle could bounce off the dolly.  

Do not forget to inspect each section after rough road running:

After rough road running, carefully inspect each section of the vehicle while confirming each item to be inspected, as shown in the manual, such as checking for spot damage and checking the under-chassis.

Don't forget to check the tires:

Driving force is applied to all 4 tires of a 4WD vehicle; therefore, tire condition greatly affects performance. Inspect the air pressure of each tire and rotate the tires periodically, according to the manual.  

Use the same size and same brand of tires on all wheels:

When you replace the tires and disk wheels, all tires and disk wheels installed on all 4 wheels must be the designated size, as well as the same size and the same brand.

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